In The Adventures of Pearley Monroe, slavery was still legal
the 1800’s. Pearley’s father, Andrew, was sold as a baby and became a
slave at a very young age. Andrew’s mom, Nancy, had to buy him back,
she bought him back when he was 23. When Pearley was born, he was born
free. On the east side of America, slavery was still going on. So then
the Civil War started. This war was between the Northern states
Confederate states. This war started on April 12, 1861, and ended on
April 9, 1865. This stopped slavery in its tracks. There were roughly
1,264,000 casualties in the Civil War. Lincoln's Emancipation
Proclamation, released in 1863 after the Union win at Antietam, said
that all enslaved people within the Confederacy were freed.
By Casey, Dillon, Elisa, and Raymond
How Slavery Started
|The rich people in the southern United States had very big
plantations. The people couldn’t take care of the whole field by
themselves all year long. They needed help caring for the ranches. The
people didn’t have machinery like the people in the north, nor could
they pay workers in the fields to help the owner take care of the
plants on the big ranch. So the people decided to bring a ship to
Africa and take the African people who lived
there and sail back to the
southern United States. The African people soon became slaves of the
owners of the big ranches. In the 1790’s there were almost ¾ of a
million in the United States. Although, the northern states outlawed
slavery, the southern states were increasingly dependent on slave labor.
Slavery is when someone is owned as someone else’s property.
was when white people would own black people. The slaves would
work for the slave owners and do chores like do the slave owners
laundry or do other chores, but by force. If the slaves had kids, the
slave owners had another slave. If the slave owner didn’t have money to
do something, he or she would sell the poor little kid.
Instead of paying their slaves money, the slave owners would
provide the slaves shelter and food for working for the slave owner.
The condition of the slave’s shelter and food was very bad. The house
slaves were mostly woman or girls the age of 7-19.
The field slaves
always were men or young men.
|Slavery was when
people owned other people as property. It was
basically white people treated black people really meanly. If the
slaves would do something bad, the slave owners would give them a very
bad punishment like whipping them. Even though, the slaves were trying
their hardest, it really didn’t
matter to the slave owners. The slave owners just cared about growing
the harvest crops as fast the harvest crops can grow. The owner would
be walking around checking how the slaves in his/her ranch were doing,
holding a whip in his/her hand just in case one of
the slaves were
doing a bad job on working.
Escaping from Slave Owners
Patrols were people that would hunt down
runaway slaves, return the slave to the slave owner, and in exchange
they would get money. Sometimes, the Patrols would punish the slaves.
Sometimes the Patrols would hunt down multiple slaves at once and then
return them to the slave owner. If all the slaves ran
away, the slave
owners would pay the Patrols a lot to get the slaves back.
Railroad was not an underground
railroad. It was just a bunch of houses, and the slaves would live in
the houses and move from house to house nightly and hide in the day
when people are awake until the slaves reach the Northern United
States. Their goal was
to reach the northern area of the country and
when they passed the southern part of the country, they would be free.
Normally the slaves would try to run to California
because it had not
become a state yet so they could start a farm and maybe a family too.
The northern part of United States was filled with cities that had
machinery so the people in the North didn’t need slaves because the
machinery did all the work.
Famous People in the
Time of Slavery
From a plantation of Harriet Bailey, Fredrick Douglass
was born in
Maryland, and was a slave. Douglass learned how to read and write from
his master’s wife. In 1838, Douglass escaped from the plantation and
traveled to Massachusetts and became a vocal
enemy of slavery. Before
10 years, Douglass opened his own anti-slavery newspaper
“North Star” so he could denounce slavery publicly. In 1855, Fredrick
Douglass became the most
recognized and respected African-American in
United States. During the Civil War, Fredrick Douglass advised
President Abe Lincoln to use African-American soldiers
equal amount of money and equal rights and promotions.
Harriet Tubman was the
Famous conductor of the
Underground Railroad. She was born to be a slave and lived until 95
years old. Harriet was born in Dorchester Country, Maryland. Harriet
Tubman did not believe in slavery and wanted to
be free. Yet, when she
grew up, she was injured when her master threw a white overseer from
refusing to tie a young man who had been caught from escaping and
suffered many black outs she helped many slave families reach the goal
of being free from slave owners. When she was 25 years old, she married
to John Tubman who was a freed slave. After five
afraid that she was going to be sold and made an escape. Lots of slave
owners lost their slaves from Harriet Tubman so they would put
signs/posters all over the streets about capturing Harriet Tubman for
an exchange of thousands of dollars. Since she was helping Slaves all
life long she has been known as Moses like in the Bible but was Moses
for the slaves.
In 1850, California became a state, and slavery was illegal
California. The owners of the African slaves were complaining that it
wasn’t fair because
there was one state more that did not have slavery
than the states that said that slavery was
allowed. So, the Northern
and Southern part of the United States agreed
that when the slaves
escape from his/her owner’s plantation and make
it to the Northern part
of the United States, the people in the Northern
United States would
have to be sent back to the slave’s plantation. So then, Harriet Tubman
and the escaping slaves would have to get to Canada to be free.
change in history. Many lives of
African Americans were changed. Some
children were slaves, and the only way to get a child back was to
buy them back. Slave owners treated the slaves poorly. If a slave tried
to run but got captured, the police would tie the salve to a pole, and
then they whipped him or cut the back of the slave's heel so they can't
run away anymore. Slavery was a revolutionary change in history.
How Slavery Ended
Europeans first colonized the North American continent, the
was vast, the work was harsh, and there was a shortage of labor. Men
and women needed to work the land. White bondservants, paying their
passage across the ocean from Europe through labor, eased but did not
solve the problem. Early in the seventeenth century, a ship
Netherlands came to North America loaded with African slaves. The slave
owners used slaves to grow tobacco and crops for
money. Lots and lots
of time passed.
To a white Southerner, slavery ending was unthinkable. People
pleaded to the judges not to be executed. These people would've pleaded
because getting killed under the cicumstance of wanting to free slaves
is very unlikely, but very likely those days. It would be hard since
people in the South had their
own republic, called the Confederate States of
People tried to end slavery in two ways. The first way
Lincoln’s power as President of the United States. He helped by
promoting the idea of ending slavery. He said, “Nearly all men can
stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him
power.” He also said, “No man is good enough to govern another man
without the other's consent.”
The second way was the Civil War, and it took 4 years to end, from 1861
to 1865. This war had very bloody battles, many
lled soldiers, or destroyed planes/battleships. There were 1,264,000 solders killed, or casualties, in th
e Civil War. On April 8,
1864, congress passed the law no persons shall own other persons. In
1863 President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring,
“All persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a
State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United
States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”
Slavery hurt many blacks/African Americans and when they were freed,
lots of people were really happy and joyful. It was an evolutionary
change and took a long, long time to end slavery, but it was worth it.
By Dillon and Casey