Introduction

In The Adventures of Pearley Monroe, slavery was still legal in the 1800’s. Pearley’s father, Andrew, was sold as a baby and became a slave at a very young age. Andrew’s mom, Nancy, had to buy him back, but she bought him back when he was 23. When Pearley was born, he was born free. On the east side of America, slavery was still going on. So then the Civil War started. This war was between the Northern states and the Confederate states. This war started on April 12, 1861, and ended on April 9, 1865. This stopped slavery in its tracks. There were roughly 1,264,000 casualties in the Civil War. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, released in 1863 after the Union win at Antietam, said that all enslaved people within the Confederacy were freed.

By Casey, Dillon, Elisa, and Raymond






How Slavery Started

The rich people in the southern United States had very big plantations. The people couldn’t take care of the whole field by themselves all year long. They needed help caring for the ranches. The people didn’t have machinery like the people in the north, nor could they pay workers in the fields to help the owner take care of the plants on the big ranch. So the people decided to bring a ship to Africa and take the African people who lived there and sail back to the southern United States. The African people soon became slaves of the owners of the big ranches. In the 1790’s there were almost of a million in the United States. Although, the northern states outlawed slavery, the southern states were increasingly dependent on slave labor.

By Elisa




Owning

Slavery is when someone is owned as someone else’s property. It was when white people would own black people.  The slaves would work for the slave owners and do chores like do the slave owners laundry or do other chores, but by force. If the slaves had kids, the slave owners had another slave. If the slave owner didn’t have money to do something, he or she would sell the poor little kid.

By Raymond




Conditions

Instead of paying their slaves money, the slave owners would provide the slaves shelter and food for working for the slave owner. The condition of the slave’s shelter and food was very bad. The house slaves were mostly woman or girls the age of 7-19. The field slaves always were men or young men.

By Elisa

Punishments

Slavery was when people owned other people as property. It was basically white people treated black people really meanly. If the slaves would do something bad, the slave owners would give them a very bad punishment like whipping them. Even though, the slaves were trying their hardest, it really didn’t matter to the slave owners. The slave owners just cared about growing the harvest crops as fast the harvest crops can grow. The owner would be walking around checking how the slaves in his/her ranch were doing, holding a whip in his/her hand just in case one of the slaves were doing a bad job on working.

By Elisa
                                                                                                       



Escaping from Slave Owners

Patrols were people that would hunt down runaway slaves, return the slave to the slave owner, and in exchange they would get money. Sometimes, the Patrols would punish the slaves. Sometimes the Patrols would hunt down multiple slaves at once and then return them to the slave owner. If all the slaves ra
n away, the slave owners would pay the Patrols a lot to get the slaves back.

 By Raymond



Underground Railroadz

The Underground Railroad was not an underground railroad. It was just a bunch of houses, and the slaves would live in the houses and move from house to house nightly and hide in the day when people are awake until the slaves reach the Northern United States.
Their goal was to reach the northern area of the country and when they passed the southern part of the country, they would be free. Normally the slaves would try to run to California because it had not become a state yet so they could start a farm and maybe a family too. The northern part of United States was filled with cities that had machinery so the people in the North didn’t need slaves because the machinery did all the work.

By Elisa




Famous People in the Time of Slavery


Fredrick Douglass

From a plantation of Harriet Bailey, Fredrick Douglass was born in Maryland, and was a slave. Douglass learned how to read and write from his master’s wife. In 1838, Douglass escaped from the plantation and traveled to Massachusetts and became a vocal enemy of slavery. Before 10 years, Douglass opened his own anti-slavery newspaper called the “North Star” so he could denounce slavery publicly. In 1855, Fredrick Douglass became the most recognized and respected African-American in United States. During the Civil War, Fredrick Douglass advised President Abe Lincoln to use African-American soldiers and provide equal amount of money and equal rights and promotions.



Harriet Tubman  

Harriet Tubman was the Famous conduc
tor of the Underground Railroad. She was born to be a slave and lived until 95 years old. Harriet was born in Dorchester Country, Maryland. Harriet Tubman did not believe in slavery and wanted to be free. Yet, when she grew up, she was injured when her master threw a white overseer from refusing to tie a young man who had been caught from escaping and suffered many black outs she helped many slave families reach the goal of being free from slave owners. When she was 25 years old, she married to John Tubman who was a freed slave. After five years, Harriet was afraid that she was going to be sold and made an escape. Lots of slave owners lost their slaves from Harriet Tubman so they would put signs/posters all over the streets about capturing Harriet Tubman for an exchange of thousands of dollars. Since she was helping Slaves all life long she has been known as Moses like in the Bible but was Moses for the slaves.

By Elisa



Afterward
In 1850, California became a state, and slavery was illegal in California. The owners of the African slaves were complaining that it wasn’t fair because there was one state more that did not have slavery than the states that said that slavery was allowed. So, the Northern and Southern part of the United States agreed that when the slaves escape from his/her owner’s plantation and make it to the Northern part of the United States, the people in the Northern United States would have to be sent back to the slave’s plantation. So then, Harriet Tubman and the escaping slaves would have to get to Canada to be free.

By Elisa



Change
   
Slavery was a big change in history. Many lives of
African Americans were changed. Some children were slaves, and the only way to get a child back was to  buy them back. Slave owners treated the slaves poorly. If a slave tried to run but got captured, the police would tie the salve to a pole, and then they whipped him or cut the back of the slave's heel so they can't run away anymore. Slavery was a revolutionary change in history.

By Casey




How Slavery Ended

Europeans first colonized the North American continent, the land was vast, the work was harsh, and there was a shortage of labor. Men and women needed to work the land. White bondservants, paying their passage across the ocean from Europe through labor, eased but did not solve the problem. Early in the seventeenth century, a ship from the Netherlands came to North America loaded with African slaves. The slave owners used slaves to grow tobacco and crops for money. Lots and lots of time passed.

To a white Southerner, slavery ending was unthinkable. People would’ve pleaded to the judges not to be executed. These people would've pleaded because getting killed under the cicumstance of wanting to free slaves is very unlikely, but very likely those days. It would be hard since people in the South had their own republic, called the Confederate States of America.



People tried to end slavery in two ways. The first way was Abraham Lincoln’s power as President of the United States.  He helped by promoting the idea of ending slavery. He said, “Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power.” He also said, “No man is good enough to govern another man without the other's consent.”



The second way was the Civil War, and it took 4 years to end, from 1861 to 1865. This war had very bloody battles, many casualties. Casualties are ki lled soldiers, or destroyed planes/battleships. There were 1,264,000 solders killed, or casualties, in th e Civil War. On April 8, 1864, congress passed the law no persons shall own other persons. In 1863 President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring, “All persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”
Slavery hurt many blacks/African Americans and when they were freed, lots of people were really happy and joyful. It was an evolutionary change and took a long, long time to end slavery, but it was worth it.

By Dillon and Casey