Performance Expectations: Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.





Science & Engineering Practices
Disciplinary Core Ideas
Crosscutting Concepts
  • Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

  • Analyzing and Interpreting Data

  • Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
  • Structure and Properties of Matter

    • Different properties are suited to different purposes
    • A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces


  • Chemical Reaction
    • Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible and sometimes, they are not.
  • Patterns
    • Patterns in the natural and human designed world can be observed.

  • Cause and Effect
    • Events have causes that generate observable patterns.

  • Structure and Function
    • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).

  • Systems and System Models
    • A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.

 












Performance Expectations: Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.

Make observations and/or measurements of an object''s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.



Science & Engineering Practices
Disciplinary Core Ideas
Crosscutting Concepts
  • Asking questions and defining problems

  • Planning and carrying out investigations


  • Forces and motion

    • Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object's speed or direction of motion.
    • The patterns of an object's motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it.

  • Types of interactions

    • Objects in contact exert forces on each other.
  • Patterns
    • Patterns in the natural and human designed world can be observed.

  • Cause and Effect
    • Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change.

  • Structure and Function
    • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).

  • Energy and Matter
    • Objects may break into smaller pieces and be put together into larger pieces, or change shapes.
 
  • Systems and System Models
    • A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.











Performance Expectations: Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.



Science & Engineering Practices
Disciplinary Core Ideas
Crosscutting Concepts
  • Asking questions and defining problems

  • Planning and carrying out investigations

  • Constructing explanations and designing solutions


  • Definitions of energy

    • The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses.

  • Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

    • Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light or heat. When objects collide, energy can  be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air, as a result , the air gets heated and sound is produced. 

  • Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

    • The expression "produce energy" typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use.

  • Defining Engineering Problems

    • Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success of how well each takes the constraints into account.

  • Cause and Effect
    • Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change.

  • Energy and Matter
    • Objects may break into smaller pieces and be put together into larger pieces, or change shapes.

  • Systems and System Models
    • A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.












Performance Expectations: Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles to small to be seen.

Make observations to identify materials based on their properties
.

Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.




Science & Engineering Practices
Disciplinary Core Ideas
Crosscutting Concepts
  • Developing and using models

  • Planning and carrying out investigations

  • Using mathematics and computational thinking


  • Structure and Properties of  Matter

    • Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations including the inflation of a balloon and the effects of air on larger particles or objects.

  • Chemical Reactions

    • When two or more substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed.
  • Cause and Effect
    • Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change.

  • Scale, Proportion and Quantity
    • Natural objects exist from the very small to the immensely large.

  • Systems and System Models
    • A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.

  • Stability and Change
    • Things may change rapidly or slowly.






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